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Carnival Chaos and Lenten Sacrifice

Although perhaps not as closely observed here as in the past, the approach of the period known to Christians as Lent was long marked with festivities and licence; a storm before the calm of six weeks solemn observance marked by self-discipline, abstinence and spiritual reflection that conclude with the celebration of Easter.  

Traditionally, one of the most marked days of this week was Shrove Tuesday, popularly known as Mardi-Gras in France. It is quite likely that the festive nature of the day has its initial roots in the pagan celebrations that once marked the end of Winter and heralded the coming of Spring; long standing seasonal celebrations that morphed with the Matronalia feasts of the Roman Empire before later becoming Christianized to mark the start of Lent in the 4th century.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

Lent, the forty days before Easter, begins on Ash Wednesday and recalls the forty years spent in the wilderness by the people of Israel under Moses and the forty days that Christ spent in the desert after his baptism, before the commencement of his mission. For Christians, it was and remains for many, a period of introspection and penitence, where the devout fasted or willingly abstained from alcohol, meat and rich foodstuffs.

The day preceding Ash Wednesday marks the end of the period of excess or ‘seven fat days’ that took place between the Thursday preceding Quinquagesima Sunday (the Sunday before Ash Wednesday) and Shrove Tuesday. This last day before the Lenten fasting period began thus became popularly known as ‘Fat Tuesday’ or Mardi-Gras. Today, it is customary to eat crêpes, doughnuts or waffles on Mardi-Gras. Such an indulgence is a remnant from the times when these dishes were made to purposefully exhaust the scarce reserves of eggs and butter that were not going to be used during Lent and would therefore spoil over the next forty days.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

Even as late as the 1930s, this was the only time of the year when the folk of rural Brittany ate beef bought from a butcher. Before the First World War, such meat was so rare on the tables of western Brittany that a special song was sung when it was served. Other Mardi-Gras favourites included crêpes and craquelines but a sweet dish known as Farz Buan was also very popular; a sort of deconstructed pancake made with a thick crêpe batter, lots of sugar and salted butter, the mixture fried until carmelised and sprinkled with sugar.

In western Brittany, the Bara Dous and the very similar Bara Gwastell were other Mardi-Gras specialities; soft sweet breads made with flour, butter, milk, eggs, sugar and a dash of alcohol, sometimes raisins were added too. This part of Brittany also enjoyed another quite distinct Mardi-Gras culinary tradition, the chotten or pig’s cheek.

In the rural Brittany of yesteryear, it was common for even the most meagre households to raise a pig for the purpose of feeding the family and to sell the good cuts of meat for money to buy iron, salt or another pig. The pig was therefore a valuable commodity and no part of the butchered animal was wasted; just the offal from one animal alone could keep a large family well-nourished for over a fortnight. For those animals slaughtered in the run-up to Mardi-Gras, the pigs’ heads, having first been cut in half and soaked in brine, were brought to the neighbourhood baker or communal bread oven to be baked after the bread, where they roasted in the pre-heated oven for several hours before emerging still steaming.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

Giving-up food for Lent was a genuine sacrifice at a time when most people enjoyed, at best, a simple and relatively poor diet. Visitors to Brittany in the 19th century all noted the populace’s wretched diet and even towards the end of that century, bread, pancakes and broth were noted as the staple diet of most people. Today, broth has become re-invented in the popular imagination into something served in fine-dining restaurants but the broth eaten by the peasants of Brittany was very basic fare; a pottage of buckwheat or millet, sometimes enlivened with chestnuts or a little cabbage and a turnip or potato. During Lent, even these meals were reduced to a minimum and any vegetables used in a broth were usually replaced with parsnips.

Typically, bread was made from barley or rye and in many households constituted both breakfast and dinner when soaked in salted hot water with just a trace of butter in it. Meals were usually accompanied with water or milk – cider and wine, being tradeable commodities, were saved for feast days and celebrations. Meat was another luxury usually reserved for feast days; a state of affairs that was still typical for poorer farmers and agricultural labourers in the years immediately before the First World War. By that time, the better off farmers could afford to eat a little fatty bacon every day but most people were only able to afford a small piece once or twice a week.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

The rarity of meat on the table is suggested in a tale noted in the 1880s around the northern town of Langueux in which four young men vie with each other over what they would do if they were king for a day. In discussing what they would eat, one man declared: “Beans and smoked bacon; a piece as fat as my big toe.” Without hesitation, another said: “A pork sausage as long as the road from Lamballe to Saint-Brieuc!” Not to be outdone, the third man announced: “I will have the sea turned into suet and will be in the middle of it with a wooden spoon.” The fourth man was speechless and decried: “There is nothing left for me; you have taken all the good things!”

One might wonder why hard-working, productive farmers ate so poorly. Simply put, it was out of necessity because almost the entirety of their production was reserved for sale or barter; the best vegetables, potatoes and chestnuts were destined for market, as were the eggs and most butter. Likewise, any birds or fish caught were typically sold or exchanged rather than eaten at home; a state of affairs that was also noted in the coastal communities where the fishermen ate only the cheapest shellfish and crabs, selling all their fish, lobsters and oysters.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

It is worth noting that, until the early years of the 20th century, the food eaten by farmers and their households here was remarkably similar to that reserved for animal feed, principally buckwheat, potatoes and chestnuts. Thus, when harvests were poor and food was scarce, the people endured simply because their animals received less to eat.

In anticipation of forty days of austerity, the festivities associated with the period before Lent, known as Shrovetide, were an opportunity for people to enjoy themselves and behave more freely than was usually socially accepted; to let off some steam before the onslaught of the hard work necessitated by the arrival of Spring. They were informal, relaxed occasions that gathered together family and friends and the wider community. It was a time for merrymaking, feasting, drinking and for playing bouts of competitive games, such as those discussed in a recent post.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

Mardi-Gras celebrations in Breton cities were more widely regarded by the locals as a period of license and officially-tolerated disorder. Although in the eastern town of Dol, it was the day that the bishop invited all the beggars of the country to feast within the precincts of the cathedral; a long-held practice that was, sadly, only discontinued by the Revolution.

More generally, the spirit of carnival prevailed: social conventions were temporarily cast aside, roles were reversed; men dressed as women, the poor in the fashion of the well-to-do, sailors dressed as agricultural labourers and vice versa. Through costume and disguise, one’s station in life could be momentarily forgotten and overturned. The mask of anonymity allowed one a mischievous opportunity to harangue and poke fun at authority and to those who normally wielded it.

Popular parades often gave rise to parodies of religious processions but such outrages were tolerated by the religious and civil authorities, even if they reproached the excesses of the multitude or the ridicule of which they were the victims. In the 19th century, some local authorities in Brittany tried to gain control over these celebrations with the organisation of official cavalcades and approved organising committees; measures that ultimately proved successful across the region by the turn of the century.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

A rather curious ritual was noted at carnival time in eastern Brittany in the latter half of the 19th century and seems to share similarities with ones recorded in parts of England and Wales in the 18th and 19th centuries. Here, young men crafted the body of a horse from a ladder and the rings of a barrel, this skeletal frame was then covered with a decorated cloth. While one man supported the weight of the horse’s body, the other held the neck and head and pulled strings that snapped the sharp jaws open and closed.

The horse, known as Bidoche, was led noisily from house to house, dancing to the sound of myriad instruments as it crossed the community. Sadly, we no longer know the meaning behind this ritual or even its purpose but the practice seems to have died out towards the end of the century under the weight of municipal concerns for public order and safety.

Carnival - Mardi Gras - Easter traditions - Brittany - France

Published by Bon Repos Gites

Enjoying life in Kalon Breizh - the Heart of Brittany.

165 thoughts on “Carnival Chaos and Lenten Sacrifice

  1. This reminds me of what parents used to say to their kids, ” you want to cry? I’ll give you something to cry about “. Asking people to do with less when they had so little was brutal. It’s like they were being reminded to not complain about their station in life. Ugh. I have to admit though- I’ve been to Mardi Gras and even Halloween in New Orleans and it IS a good time.

    Liked by 6 people

    1. Agreed!! When you realise how near the poverty line most once lived, you can appreciate how religion and superstition became so important to them. Stoic as they were, everyone needed hope for better days! 🙏

      Liked by 2 people

  2. Informative facts on carnival and stuff shows the true purpose of human beings. Historical renderings have the power to revisit and measure the human evolution. Such stories gives us hope that much can be accomplished and yet many fail to establish a connection. Thank you for this article 🙏

    Liked by 4 people

  3. For people whose average diet was so poor to have to reduce it further seems a little harsh! I don’t wonder they wanted to go a bit crazy. I grew up looking forward to Shrove Tuesday because that’s when my mum made pancakes for us and even now it’s one of my favourite things. English pancakes being similar to crepes as opposed to American pancakes that are thick and come in a stack. It’s interesting to learn how pancakes were a way of using up eggs and butter. Makes sense. We tend to think of eggs as a basic item but they have often become a luxury in times of deprivation. Carnival has become such a big deal. When I worked at JFK the flights to Trinidad for carnival were always hopelessly oversold so every day was a circus! Another enjoyable post. Thank you!

    Liked by 5 people

    1. I agree! When you have almost nothing, it is a genuine sacrifice to give-up even a little.
      You are right, the traditional pancakes of Britain are very similar to the crêpes of Brittany.

      When I was younger, I had this idea that the farmers of old ate well becuase they had easy access to fresh produce. It never really dawned on me until I started reading old accounts how much everything was destined for market or barter! 😔

      Liked by 3 people

  4. I’ve also noticed how the humble broth has become trendy and is now known as “bone broth” in specialty food markets and restaurants! As for eggs, I think it will be easier to give them up this Lenten Season since there’s a shortage, unfortunately.

    Liked by 6 people

      1. Did you say read it! I keep all in my library 📚 to read up continually. Wow that’s my assignment every day. Australia 🇦🇺 is not privy to all British 🇬🇧 histories 📜 only the Royal Family. You open a pandora box we don’t go over. We are sharing into Australia 🇦🇺 at present. Again congratulations 🎉

        Liked by 1 person

  5. From humble beginnings to giant festivals and orgies today. Somewhere the reality has been lost in translation. While never one to give up something for Lent, my upbringing taught me what it was like to go without. Even the supply chain issues of today look like abundance in comparison. This year we missed Shrove Tuesday for some reason, so no pancakes for us. Have a great Saturday. Allan

    Liked by 4 people

    1. Thank you Allan! Yes, it seems that we seem to always try and bend things until they become almost unrecognisable! 🙄
      Haha, any day is a good day for pancakes, surely. 😉😊😊
      Thanks for your good wishes! Enjoy the weekend! 🙏

      Liked by 1 person

    1. You are very welcome! 🙂 I don’t know what it is like near you but I have noticed these last two years that an increasing number of folk now tend not to clean away the ash as they leave the service but keep it visible throughout the day.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Yes, I always leave it on, which can be an experience when I go shopping. Nobody said anything this year, but in the past, somebody has always pointed out that I have a grease spot on my forehead. Then I have to explain the whole thing. LOL

        Liked by 2 people

  6. This made me think of stories my mom told me about her childhood growing up on the high plains of Montana during the Depression. Her father was a tenant farmer and, apparently, not very good at it. One story is that at school the kids were given hot chocolate and graham crackers every day except the poor kids who got vegetable soup. The idea was that vegetable soup was nutritious. My mom would say, “We had vegetable soup every day at home. We never got hot chocolate and graham crackers. We had no money for that.” One of her saddest stories was about my grandfather and his sow, whom he loved. The sow followed him everywhere and every year had piglets which they sold. One year the pig family got into some poison and that was the end of all of them. I have a great photo of him with the pig family; he has an apple in his pocket and the sow is trying to get it. I don’t think we realize how close we all are to a very different world that was not so long ago.

    Liked by 3 people

    1. What wonderful anecdotes! Thank you so much for sharing! 🤗 You put it so succinctly – most of us have no real appreciation for how totally different was the world of our great-grandparents and theirs! We have probably changed more in the last 130 years than we have in the previous 930!!

      Liked by 1 person

      1. My grandma canned fruit and vegetables all her life, even when her daughters were there to take her to the store. She had a cellar in which she kept them. For many years they had a smoke house for ham. When my mom tried to explain her life as a child to me, it made no sense. I had no experience to connect it to. I got a little sense of it in China in 1982/83 before modernization. The peasants (as they were called) got up in the wee hours to harvest vegetables for market, got on a train, came to our village which was then semi-rural and is now part of Guangzhou. Everything, every fish, every vegetable, has caught/cut/dug that day. It was a month or so before this reality penetrated my supermarket brain after seeing the women walking a half-run/half-walk rhythmic stride with a shoulder pole and baskets of veggies hanging from each end. When I got it, I didn’t mind at all that I was grotesquely overcharged even though my Chinese friends told me all the time. I was paid as much as Deng Xiao Ping and had no rent or utilities. If a pig was slaughtered belonging to our work unit (university) we got our portion and the women who ran out kitchen would yell at me, “Martha! Martha! We have pork!” and I’d go up to the kitchen and take from my portion whatever I wanted to cook myself. We ate lunch in the dining hall for which these women cooked so they kept most of it for that. We had a refrigerator, too, which most Chinese at the time didn’t have. sorry for going on…

        Liked by 1 person

      2. I would have no idea how to can food or prepare it for storage in a cold room! I guess it would have been something learned at an early age but amazing how quickly the knowledge of years is lost!

        Yes, I imagine China in 1982 would have been quite an experience! Some folks there are likely still living as their great-grandmothers did but if there are any in Guangzhou then I am sure they have a smart phone and rice cooker now 😉

        Liked by 1 person

  7. I did not grow up with Marti Gras or any celebration like that – I know it is observed in New Orleans which has French roots – once owned by the French crown once upon a time

    But I never pay attention cause is not one of the states I ever lived in or visited

    Was not something my family celebrated either

    There was no party before lent or maybe the Friday before? But not on Tuesday lol … and Our lent leading up to Easter was quiet and reflection time …

    We did have rules for what we could eat and when… also colors of clothing when can be worn

    We did not celebrate preLent festivities lol

    Easter was our big shining day

    Although I loved Palm Sunday too ❤️

    Very interesting to learn back story of Marti Gras – so it’s not just crazy partying and drinking 😮

    Thank you for the enlightenment 👏🙌❤️

    Liked by 3 people

    1. You are very welcome! Thank you for taking the trouble to read it! 🤗🤗😊
      Nowadays, at least here, there is no real sense of a week of Shrovetide festivites although some towns do run carnivals over that weekend! Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday are still celebrated but more at a family level. It will be all quiet now until Holy Week! 😊 Although, we can make pancakes without eggs and milk! 😉

      Liked by 1 person

      1. I wish we would have had celebrations like that …

        That would have made it more fun!

        Mine was kinda controlling and more on the serious side

        Seen but not heard 🤫 had to always look perfect and always be good catholic

        Easter was a big deal … we had to do Easter mass before we could have our baskets lol – then it was a celebration

        Easter baskets and we had big breakfast and huge dinner usually ham but was just like Thanksgiving, Christmas, & New Years meals – big and proper lol

        Easter always felt very fresh and new – like a restart and winter was over and spring break was usually right there lol

        But yeah I remember my catholic being very controlling and without much fun stuff

        It was very interesting to learn about Marti Gras … I had no idea what it was for? I am in America where if there is excuse for party they on it lol ✌️🤷‍♀️

        I did not know it had religious ties 😮 I will have to check out some documentaries ✌️❤️ thank you for the curiosity 😘

        I am used to making vegan and different types of food without certain ingredients lol … not that I am vegan or anything else … but some of my people are so I do that for them ❤️🫶

        It’s not so bad 🤷‍♀️

        Also, I don’t always strictly follow their rules anymore – the reigns have been loosened 😘

        Some things I hold on to – but some things I do not

        Now I wear any color I want whenever I want lol … and don’t always follow the food rules

        So far – I have not been struck by lightening lol ⚡️

        I can not wait to read the history on your celebrations lol

        Why did we not have that???? But my catholic was stone cold serious catholic 🤷‍♀️

        But yes very very interesting – I had zero knowledge that it was religiously based!! Very interesting

        Liked by 2 people

      2. I guess families have always had their little traditions! Like you, we were never allowed eggs before church and always had a big meal! 🙂

        Haha, given your weather this past year, I would not rule out lightening strikes! 😮😉 Enjoy the rest of your weekend and I hope the new week is kind to you! 😊🤗

        Liked by 1 person

      3. Yeah each generation was different – but had their solid traditions lol

        Hahaha yeah true lol 😮😳 ⚡️

        I should not discount lightening yet lol ⚡️

        I hope so 🙏 is my end of month so hopefully 🙏 😊 thank you – to you also 😘❤️

        Liked by 2 people

  8. Old day’s stories always evergreen , historical interesting 🌹🙏👍🏻The Painting photos are awesome 👏
    So difficult times and sacrifices men lived also they happily celebrated carnivals , Christmas,Easter as
    Well 👌🎉Fasting 40 days fasting (sad days) for Jesus Christ prayers and they receive Blessings 🌹🙏♥️
    Still the tradition Christen people following , they only will eat vegetables light food 🍱 inspiring 👌😊
    So great post written dear friend and sharing 🌹🙏♥️🌹

    Liked by 3 people

  9. As usual an interesting read. But this time thought provoking also. Especially with respect to diet of peasants and common people where they sell or barter their best produce and ate the cheapest ones. The information about lent and the way it was practised is quite interesting. We have evolved as humans from those times but some things remain the same.

    And the Bidoche at the end was a relief. Could visualise that horse dancing in the streets.

    Thanks for sharing.

    Liked by 4 people

    1. You are most welcome! Thank you for reading it! 🙏🙏😊
      Yes, sometimes it can be quite humbling to realise how far we have comne from the life of our near ancestors and yet how much might stioll be recognisable to them today! 🤔

      Liked by 2 people

    1. Thank you! 🙂 You are right, I think we do take so much for granted these days. Especially when compared to just a few short generations ago when choices and opportunities to change one’s lot were so much more difficult or even impossible.


  10. It’s fascinating to read how the celebration and fasting season of Lent came about and evolved around the countries of the world. Mardi Gras festivities ended here in New Orleans and Key West on February 21st. It does seem that even when people are experiencing harsh and trying times they will find a way to find joy if only temporarily. I so enjoyed this and the wonderful art. Thank you Colin 😊🤗

    Liked by 3 people

    1. You are right, it is interesting how we can all start from roughly the same page and yet, over time, devlop traditions that are quite separate and distinct!
      I am sure that the need to unwind and forget about things, even briefly, is as important today as ever it was.
      Stay well Holly! 🙏🙏

      Liked by 1 person

    1. I guess it is one of those things that you grow-up being aware of and just take for granted? We all do it, all the time. One you note it, it all falls into place doesn’t it? 🤔😉Thanks for reading Lyssy – I appreciate it! 🙂
      Enjoy the week ahead! 🙏

      Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you! I am pleased you found it of interest! 🙂 Yes, like you, I would love to discover more about the origins of that horse ritual. It is tempting to search for meaning in the examples known across the Channel but that would be dangerous. 🤔 I will keep looking! 🤞

      Liked by 1 person

  11. I am also pleased and thank you as well! Spring is already here and we had a lovely excursion due to the religious holiday of Lent and the kite flew up to the skies higher than everyone else! Have a nice spring with your family and your beloved ones! Best regards! 🙂 🙂 🙂

    Liked by 3 people

    1. That sounds wonderful!! 🙂 🙂
      Still rather chilly here but Spring flowers are coming out and that always lifts the spirits! 😉
      Thank you for your kind words! Best wishes to you and yours!! 🤗🙏🙏

      Liked by 1 person

  12. The horse tradition you describe is very similar to the “Owd Oss” (Old Horse) custom performed by mummers (actors). Once upon a time it may have been an actual horses head used, but became replaced by a wooden one and a black cloak around the puppeteer. The rest of the company would sing the song of this rather sorry creature about its life of toil and for it to end up being sold to make glue!

    At least this was the English version and was normally performed in winter.

    The Welsh version is the Mari Lwyd (Grey Mare) and is connected to either the goddess Rhiannon or the Virgin Mary depending on the translation.

    Both the English and Welsh versions are similar in that the company of mummers are all in costume and the “horse” goes around causing mischief. 🙂

    Interesting how both Great Britain (one day, my friend we’ll settle on an agreed term we can both use. 😉) and Brittany both have pancakes and crepes on Shrove Tuesday! Ours this year were more of the American variety for a change, my wife wanted to try out a version from a cookbook.

    Liked by 3 people

    1. Thank you for taking the time to leave such an interesting comment! I have read of those horse processions in insular Britain (as you see it sometimes described here! 😉) and it is so frustrating that there is virtually nothing written of the tradition here. The custom seems to have died out in the late 1850s although some folks did try to revive it in the early 1980s but they focused more on medieval costumes and instruments and their horse, from what I have seen, was more like a ‘dragon’ body!

      Sadly, not even the name is of help, as bidoche is French not Breton and is really a slang term for the poorest cuts of meat.

      Yes, our pancakes are very similar and likely a throwback to days when life was harder and ingredients scarce? Hope your American ones were tasty! 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Apologies for the late response!

        Insular Britain….. love it! Alright then, that’s what I’ll refer to it as with you from now on. 😉

        You’re very welcome, I just wanted to shed some light on what you were drafting and hopefully draw some parallels. Nowadays Owd Oss is usually performed on or around Boxing Day (26th December) and Mari Lwyd on Twelfth Night (January 5th or 6th, depending). That is indeed a shame nothing was written down about it, but your explanation of the name coming from the poorest cuts reminds me of the Owd Oss’ fate of being turned to glue.

        I agree, and yes they were….. butterscotch sauce, bananas and all. 😁

        Liked by 1 person

      2. Thank you!! Interestingly, those dates are quite close together and I can’t but wonder whether they might once have been even close? We tend to forget the impact of the switch to the Gregorian calendar. If we then add-in the vagaries of active/lazy landowners and bishops, we could well have had these horse parades around the same time – here and there. Your point about poor meat and the bone yard is well made! Could this have been some kind of seasonal display of the virile horse having spent itself in the service of the community or some such notion? Ha, I am letting my imagination run ahead of me 🙄🙄

        Liked by 1 person

      3. Now, funny you should say that: Owd Oss is classed as a wassailing ceremony and wassailing is normally performed on Twelfth Night….. the Old Twelfth Night would have been on the 17th January before the calendar changed to Gregorian!

        Chances are, they may have been done at the same time….. possibly.

        Who can say? But considering how high horses were regarded in status by nobility as well as the community for domestic use, perhaps some kind of jest took place as a shared custom of satire? 🤷🏼‍♂️

        Liked by 1 person

      4. Very good point! And it wouldn’t surprise me that the common folk would use such an occasion to poke fun of the courts and nobility….. 😉

        Liked by 1 person

      5. Exactly so – at least that is what they did here in earlier times and I seem to recall reading that something similar was done in insular Britain and elsewhere in France – Feast of Fools and the Lord of Misrule etc.

        Liked by 1 person

      6. Yes! Made and organised by The Church no less, and as both countries were under Church and Crown, it would make sense that both share such a custom.

        My dear Bon, I think we cracked it! 😁

        Liked by 1 person

  13. Hi Colin,

    I just love reading “the story behind the story” of our current practices and beliefs. I found it especially interesting, but not surprising that Shrove Tuesday had it’s origins in pagan beliefs.


    Liked by 3 people

    1. Thank you Nancy! I am happy that you enjoyed the read! 🙂
      I think that there were so many festivals in pre-Christian days that you would be hard put not to find crossovers wherever you looked. Interestingly, Easter is most likely the big exception to that!
      Keep well! 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

  14. Thank you for the great art and information; all very interesting. At least – I was born in the 30s – my father grew several vegetables, mint and parsley, etc., and otherwise worked hard, so, before rationing (WW2) we ate very well and my mother was an excellent cook. We not only had pancakes (a favourite) on Shrove Tuesday, but a few times a month, with lemon and sugar. Yum!

    Liked by 2 people

    1. I believe that is a good grounding on the realities of life! Imagine if we had to cope with enforced rationing now! 😮
      A little lemon and a dash of sugar is how I prefer my pancakes too!! Every street vendor here these days seems to want to smother them in nutella! 🙄

      Liked by 1 person

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